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  • 英语中虚拟语气是用来表示说话人的主观愿望或假想

  • 来源:重庆书之香 日期:2016-05-08
  • 知识点总结

    虚拟汉语中表示一种假设的不存的情况同样,英语中虚拟语气用来表示说话人的主观愿望或假想而不表示客观存在的事实,所说一个条件,不一定事实,或与事实相反。虚拟语气通过谓语动词的特殊形式来表示。在初中阶段虚拟语气一般用于下列情况:

    一、条件状语从句

    1与现在事实相反

    若与现在事实相反,虚拟语气的条件从句的谓语用过去式(be通常用were),主句谓语用“should (would could, might)+动词原形”。如:

    if i were you i would take an umbrella. 如果我你,我会带把伞。(事实上我不可能你)

    if i knew her number i could ring her up. 要我知道她的电话号码我就可以给她打电话了。(事实上我不知道)

    2、与过去事实相反

    若与过去事实相反,从句:主语+had done , 主句:主语+should/would/could/might+have done 例如:

    if i'd left sooneri'd have been on time. 要我早点动身,我就准时到了。(但我动身太迟了)

    if i had got there earlier, i should/could have met her. 如果我早到那儿,我就会见到她。 (事实:去晚了)

    3、与将来事实相反

    从句:①if+主语+were to do 主句:①主语+should/would/could/might+do

    ②if+主语+did/were ②主语+should/would/could/might+do

    ③if+主语+should+do ③主语+should/would/could/might+do

    例如:if he wentwould you go too? 如果他去你也去吗?(大概他不会去)

    if he should come here tomorrow i would talk to him. 如果他明天来这儿的话,我就跟他谈谈。 (事实:来的可能性很小)

    注意与说明:对于与将来事实相反的情形请注意以下几点:

    一这里说的与将来事实相反,实为对将来情况的推测;

    二此用法中条件从句谓语除用过去式外有时也用“should+动词原形”(表示可能性极小,常译为“万一”)或“were to+动词原形”(表示与将来事实相反的假设);

    三当条件从句使用“should+动词原形”这样谓语时,主句谓语除可用“should (would could, might)+动词原形”这样的虚拟语气外,也可用陈述语气或祈使语气。如:

    i should see him, i'll tell him. 万一我见到他,我就告诉他。

    if it should rain tomorrow, don’t expect me. 万一明天下雨,就别等我了。

    二、wish 后宾语从句

    1、表示与现在事实相反的愿望,谓语动词用过去式 。例如:

    i wish i had your brains. 我希望我有你那样的头脑。(事实:我根本比不上你)

    2表示与过去事实相反愿望谓语动词:had+done 例如:

    i wish i had knownthe truth of the matter. 我希望我那时就知道这件事情的真相。(事实:那时还不知道)

    3表示将来难以实现的愿望谓语动词:should/would(情态动词) + 动词原形

    i wish i should havea chance again. 我希望我还能有一次这样的机会。(事实:很难再有这样机会了)

    常见考法

    对于虚拟语气的考查在单项和完形填空中出现的较多,阅读理解中,也常会出现虚拟语气的句子。我们掌握了虚拟语气的用法,会帮助我们更好的理解短文。

    典型例题:mary is ill today. if she _____, she ____ absent from school.

    a. were not ill, wouldn't be

    b. had been ill, wouldn't have been

    c. had been ill, should have been

    d. hadn't been ill could be

    解析: 题干的意思“ mary今天病了,如果她没生病,今天她就会去上学了”。因为第一句说,mary今天病了,所以本题考查与现情况相反事情,因之,主句用would、shouldcould+动词原型,从句用一般过去时。

    答案:a

    误区提醒

    1、在学习虚拟语气的时候,要对过去、 现在、 将来的虚拟的做出正确判断。

    2、一定要记住,虚拟语气的条件从句的谓语用过去式动词be要用were。

    典型例题:i ________ him the answer ________ possible but i was so busy then.

    a. could tell if it had been

    b. must have told were it

    c. should have told had it been

    d. should have told, should it be

    解析:先分开看此题,由于设空处在主句,所以先看主句,因为由主句看不出题目所表达的具体时间所以再看从句,此从句由but引导的转折句,所表达的时态一般过去时,意为“我那时很忙”所以,主句发生的事情与过去事情相反的事情,因之,主句用could、should、would+动词原形,从句用过去完成时。

    答案:c

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